Welcome at the Institute for Nano- and Microfluidics!
We deal with transport phenomena in fluids on the nano- and micrometer scale. We are particularly interested in basic research with the intention of paving the way for novel applications. Our approach is based on a “bottom-up” strategy, i.e. the research is knowledge-driven. Breaking new scientific ground fascinates us, but we keep applications in mind. These can be in different fields such as sustainability, energy conversion, process engineering or (bio)chemical analytics.
Our research covers a broad range of topics and combines experimental, theoretical and numerical approaches. Our fields of work include gas kinetics on the nanoscale, transport processes in electrolyte solutions and at liquid interfaces, wetting phenomena, and separation processes for biomolecules.
In teaching, we offer master's level courses that reflect our research approach. This means that great importance is attached to the understanding of phenomena and processes, but these are also considered in an application context.
If we have aroused your interest, we would be pleased to hear from you!
New group member: Arman Sadeghi
A few days ago, Professor Arman Sadeghi joined our group. Before that, he worked as Associate Professor at the University of Kurdistan, Iran. He is funded by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in terms of a Humboldt Research Fellowship.
October 10, 2021
New group member: Qingwen Dai
A few days ago, Dr. Qingwen Dai joined our group. Before that, he worked as a lecturer at Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics, China. He is funded by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in terms of a Humboldt Research Fellowship.
Article published in Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics
Recently, an article entitled “Flow and Drop Transport Along Liquid-Infused Surfaces”, authored by Steffen Hardt and Glen McHale, was published in the Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. In this article, recent developments related to liquid-infused surfaces are reviewed from a fluid mechanics perspective. It covers a spectrum ranging from single-phase flow along liquid-infused surfaces to dynamic wetting processes. A preprint of the article can be found here:
September 21, 2021
New group member: Satarupa Dutta
A few days ago, Dr. Satarupa Dutta joined our group. She recently obtained her PhD at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati and will study thermoelectric energy conversion in nanochannels in the framework of the EU project TRANSLATE, together with Rajkumar Sarma.
August 24, 2021
Hydrodynamic dispersion in Hele-Shaw flows
In the 1950s, Taylor and Aris published their landmark results on the spreading of a dissolved species in unidirectional flow, i.e., in a tube or a channel, referred to as Taylor-Aris dispersion. We have considered flows between parallel-plates (so-called Hele-Shaw flows), which are no longer unidirectional, but may exhibit complex patterns owing to inhomogeneous wall boundary conditions. For such scenarios, we have asked how a dissolved species may spread. We have been able to reduce the 3D advection-diffusion equation for the concentration field to a 2D dispersion equation that may be viewed as a generalization of Taylor-Aris dispersion. We believe that in the future this equation could find widespread use in simplifying simulations of hydrodynamic dispersion in microfluidics.
August 6, 2021
New group member: Rajkumar Sarma
A few days ago, Dr. Rajkumar Sarma joined our group. He recently obtained his PhD at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati and will study thermoelectric energy conversion in nanochannels in the framework of the EU project TRANSLATE.
June 22, 2021
Start of EU project TRANSLATE
Recently, the EU project TRANSLATE, funded under the FET-Open scheme of the EU, was launched. Heavily relying on results we published a few years ago (https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.225901), this project aims at establishing thermoelectric energy converters based on electrolyte-filled nanochannels. This could pave the way to the widespread use of inexpensive energy conversion devices made from highly abundant materials. Apart from our group, partners from the University College Cork (Ireland), the University of Latvia and the Spanish company Cidete form the TRANSLATE team. Further information can be found here: https://www.tu-darmstadt.de/universitaet/aktuelles_meldungen/einzelansicht_320064.de.jsp
May 7, 2021
Cloaking and shielding objects in a fluid flow
Among the best-known technologies deployed by Star Trek’s starships are their invisibility-inducing cloaking devices and their shields. Together with co-operation partners from the Technion, Israel, and IBM Research Europe we have developed a cloaking/shielding device for objects in microfluidic channels/chambers instead of starships. In cloaking mode, an object leaves the fluid flow around it undisturbed, and in shielding mode, the hydrodynamic forces on an object are eliminated. This principle may find a number of applications, for example in the manipulation of soft objects such as cells. See also https://physics.aps.org/articles/v14/s57.
April 22, 2021
Breakup of a liquid bridge on a solid surface
Liquid bridges that become unstable and break up are found in numerous situations, for example when a droplet pinches off from a liquid reservoir. We have studied the breakup dynamics of water bridges wetting a hydrophobic surface using experiments and simulations. The dynamics is governed by a balance of inertial and capillary forces. We find that the liquid bridge decays into droplets in very much the same way as a free liquid bridge.
M. Hartmann, M. Fricke, L. Weimar, D. Gründing, T. Marić, D. Bothe, and S. Hardt, Breakup dynamics of capillary bridges on hydrophobic stripes, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 140 (2021),103582.
April 16, 2021
Protein separation at liquid-liquid interfaces
The separation of proteins according to specific properties such as size plays an eminent role in many processes of the biotech industry. We have recently demonstrated a new separation process for proteins in a microfluidic device. First, a protein mixture is electrophoretically transported towards a liquid-liquid interface. The interface represents a transport resistance to the proteins, such that some species adsorb at the interface more easily than others. Protein separation can be accomplished if one species crosses the interface, while the other gets adsorbed, which was demonstrated in the paper referred to below. We believe that in the future this new method of protein separation could extend the spectrum of industrial separation processes.
February 26, 2021
Stability of liquid rings in capillary tubes
Imagine introducing a small droplet into a capillary tube with circular cross section. “Small” means that the droplet volume is of the order of the tube diameter cubed or smaller. Such a droplet can exist in several shapes. It can form a liquid plug, a liquid ring or a sessile droplet at the tube wall. Interestingly, whether or not a liquid ring can exist depends on its volume and the contact angle of the liquid at the wall. We have explored the stability limits of liquid rings using analytical and numerical methods and represented the results in a stability map.
December 17, 2020
Electroosmotic flow (EOF) induced by surface acoustic waves
Surface acoustic waves (SAW) are widely used in microfluidics for transporting and mixing liquids. SAWs are acoustic waves travelling along the interface between a solid and a fluid. Up to now, the electrokinetic effects due to SAWs have remained largely unexplored. We have theoretically studied the EOF induced by SAWs and found that in small-scale channels, the EOF velocity may significantly exceed the velocity due to the acoustic field. Therefore, SAW-induced EOF may be useful as a method for pumping liquids through small scale channels.
November 19, 2020
Fluid interfaces can become solid-like
As a stream encounters an obstacle, floating debris sometimes piles up in front of the obstacle, forming a dense layer on the water surface. At a microscopic scale, surfactants, molecules attached to the interface between two fluids, can suffer the same fate, immobilizing the interface upstream of an obstacle. ‘Super-hydrophobic’ surfaces with embedded gas pockets have been suggested for reducing drag on objects moving through water. With this in mind, we investigated the impact that surfactants have on this mechanism and found that parts of the gas-water interface become ‘solidified’ by surfactant pile-up.