Electrokinetic flow and transport

Electrokinetic transport processes are induced by electric fields interacting with a space charge region in a fluid. Traditionally, the space charge region is found close to a charged wall in contact with an electrolyte. Below you will find examples of our research in the area of electrokinetic flow and transport.

Enhancement of electroosmotic flow on superhydrophobic surfaces

Together with cooperation partners from the Technion/Israel, we have studied the electroosmotic flow along superhydrophobic surfaces, augmented by gate electrodes. Via the charges created at the gas-liquid interfaces, the flow velocity can be increased by more than a factor of 10 compared to unstructured surfaces. In addition, the flow is entirely pH-independent. A summary of the main results can be found here.

S. Dehe, B. Rofman, M. Bercovici, and S. Hardt, Electro-osmotic flow enhancement over superhydrophobic surfaces, Physical Review Fluids 5 (2020), 053701.

Pattern formation in layers of DNA molecules

DNA molecules can be concentrated by electrophoretic accumulation at an interface between two immiscible polymer solutions. Apart from its relevance in applications, this process goes along with the formation of characteristic DNA concentration patterns, visible in the figure at the left. We have experimentally studied the concentration patterns and formulated a theory describing the pattern formation. The theoretical predictions based on linear stability analysis compare favorably with the experimental results.

Reference: S. Hardt, J. Hartmann, S. Zhao, and A. Bandopadhyay, Electric-field-induced pattern formation in layers of DNA molecules at the interface between two immiscible liquids, Physical Review Letters 124 (2020), 064501. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.064501

Electrophoresis of surface particles

The electrophoresis of particles immersed in a liquid is a well-studied phenomenon. However, what happens when a particle attached to a liquid surface translates along that surface driven by an electric field has been largely unknown. We have computed the electrophoretic mobility of a particle at the interface between two fluids with large viscosity contrast. For thin Debye layers, the Smoluchowki mobility is recovered. Generally, the mobility depends on the contact angle between the fluids and the particle. We have also calculated the interfacial deformation caused by Debye layer around the particle.

Reference: M. Eigenbrod, F. Bihler, and S. Hardt, Electrokinetics of a particle attached to a fluid interface: Electrophoretic mobility and interfacial deformation, Physical Review Fluids 3 (2018), 103701. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.3.103701

Thermoelectricity in confined liquid electrolytes

The electric field induced in a bulk phase of a liquid electrolyte exposed to a temperature gradient is attributed to different thermophoretic mobilities of the dissolved ion species. We have shown that such Soret-type ion thermodiffusion is not required to induce thermoelectricity even in the simplest electrolyte if it is confined between walls carrying a charge density. The space charge of the electric double layer leads to selective ion diffusion driven by a temperature-dependent electrophoretic ion mobility, which —for narrow channels— may cause thermovoltages larger in magnitude than for the classical Soret effect. On the left, the corresponding (scaled) Seebeck coefficient is plotted for different values of the surface charge density against the (scaled) channel width.

Reference: M. Dietzel and S. Hardt, Thermoelectricity in confined liquid electrolytes, Physical Review Letters 116, 225901 (2016)